Over 31000 cases of monkeypox had been reported in 89 countries where it is not endemic as of August 12. Because of the magnitude of the outbreak, the World Health Organization (WHO) has declared monkeypox-an orthopoxvirus related to smallpox-a 'public health emergency of international concern.' This is the second time this designation has been made in less than two years, the first being for COVID-19.
The latest global public health threat to make headlines is monkeypox. The majority of people infected with the monkeypox virus experience flu-like symptoms and a blistery rash that lasts two to four weeks, but a small percentage develop sepsis or other serious and potentially fatal complications.
The monkeypox virus was first detected in humans in the 1970s, and outbreaks have been reported in a number of countries, with the majority of cases confined to endemic areas.Monkeypox cases were reported in the United Kingdom, Spain, and other parts of Europe in early May 2022. The geographical dispersal pattern was much larger than in previous outbreaks, which were more localized and frequently occurred in under-resourced communities.
Each day, the size of the outbreak clusters grows, as does their geographical spread across Europe and North America. Within a week of the initial report, 24 countries reported suspected and confirmed monkeypox virus cases, some of which had known travel links to the United Kingdom, Spain, Canada, and Western Europe.
As of August 10, 2022, a total of 162 cases had been confirmed. The majority of them were concentrated in West Asia, with 141 of the total 156 cases (90.38%) reported there. Only Israel has reported 114 cases (73.07%). On June 21, 2022, Israel reported the first community transmission of the disease. India reported the first case of monkeypox from the south east Asia region on July 14, 2022. As of August 8, 2022, India has reported 9 cases of monkeypox and one death.
To combat potential stigma and prejudice, the World Health Organization is giving the monkeypox virus a new name.Although a replacement name has not yet been disclosed, the one that is in use has drawn criticism, especially in light of WHO standards that forbid using geographic or animal names to identify illnesses.
Although the battle against Covid is still ongoing, an outbreak of monkeypox has started to spread concern over the world. But unlike Covid in the early years of 2020, scientists already have a lot of crucial knowledge about monkeypox.
Nepal is not exception in this case, though a single case of monkeypox has not been reported till date, Nepal shouldn't ignore the risk of disease entrance from India. The initial COVID-19 outbreak in Nepal was predominantly linked to seasonal labor migrants crossing the Indian border, despite the fact that the first case was documented in a student returning from China, and the incidence of COVID-19 in Nepal is highly correlated with the incidence in India.
All we need to know about monkeypox
The monkeypox virus, which causes the illness, is a zoonotic orthopoxvirus. Its symptoms, which include a rash and fever, are comparable to but less severe than those of smallpox, a related condition that was eliminated by vaccination programs by May 1980. A zoonosis is an illness that spreads from animals to people; in the case of monkeypox, rodents are most likely the disease's
There are several ways that monkeypox spreads.
• Anyone can contract monkeypox through close, direct, and frequently skin-to-skin contact, including:
• Direct touch with a monkey-pox patient's rash, scabs, or bodily fluids.
• Interacting with items, materials (such as clothing, beds, or towels), or surfaces that have been touched by a person who has the monkeypox.
• Exposure to respiratory secretions
This direct contact can occur during intimate interactions, such as oral, anal, and vaginal intercourse. A pregnant person can spread the virus to their fetus through the placenta. Additionally, individuals can get monkeypox from diseased animals by being bitten or scratched by them, preparing or consuming meat from them, or using their products.
Numerous persons have had a rash on their face, palms of their hands, soles of their feet, or around the genital and anal region during the current outbreak. Additionally, some people have reported seeing lesions in the vagina, anus, throat, and mouth.According to the WHO, monkeypox lesions can number from a few to thousands. The rash may resemble those from herpes, syphilis, or chickenpox. Normally, it progresses from red spots to tiny bumps on the skin. Then, those lumps could develop into blisters that contain yellowish fluid.
Other flu-like symptoms that people may experience include fever, enlarged lymph nodes, headaches, muscular pains, back pain, and exhaustion.
Some patients need prescription medicine or perhaps hospital treatment to assist control the discomfort from monkeypox lesions since they can be quite severe. Antiviral medications can be used to treat monkeypox patients who have severe symptoms, even though many cases resolve on their own. Although there is little information on their efficacy for this illness, smallpox treatments may be tried.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises that after consulting with the CDC, individuals with severe monkeypox disease, patients who are immunocompromised, children under the age of 8, and pregnant women should be given consideration for antiviral therapy.
The following are the strongest defenses against contracting monkeypox:
• Avoid coming into close touch with sick individuals or their clothing, bedding, etc.
• Wash your hands thoroughly and often.
• When attending to someone who has signs of an illness or monkeypox, wear a mask, gloves, or other protective clothing.
• Restricting the number of sexual partners is a suggestion made by the WHO.
The information on monkeypox, its signs and symptoms, and its preventive and control strategies are being shared on a number of news channels, online, in government social media, and in newspapers. The freehotline number (1115) has already been made available by the Ministry of Health and Population for reporting febrile conditions with rashes and lesions that resemble the pox on the face, hands, and legs.